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gue, 2017/02/25 19:04
hay guys!!

i would like to know differences between :
Saranghae, Saranghaeyou, Saranghantagu, Saranghanta
Nega, Nan, Jhoyo ( i don't know the correct romaji)

please help me and thank you...
openslang, 2017/02/25 19:30
Saranghae (사랑해) : I love you.
There are two speaking ways in Korean. One is "honorific way" and the other one is "informal way". Korea is based on very strict age ranking system among the people, so following this speaking way is very important, Originally 사랑해 is "informal way" for the people who is younger than you. However, if you would say "I love you" to someone, they might be very friendly with you as much as you didn't need to follow Korean age ranking system. In this case, you could use 사랑해 very freely.

Saranghaeyou (사랑해유) : I love you.
사랑해유 is dialect of Choongchung area in Korea. I am pretty sure that you were confused 사랑해유 and 사랑해요(saranghaeyo). 사랑해요 is "honorific way" of 사랑해 and is used for people who are older than you.

Saranghantagu (사랑한다구) : I love you
사랑한다구 feels some aggressive and is used to respond to someone when they ask you if you love them.

Saranghanta Nega (사랑한다 내가) : love you, I do.
Subject is not very important in Korean language,. so in many cases, sentences are made without their subject.
For instance, 사랑해 => there is no subject and no object. 사랑해 is just verb.
However , "사랑한다 내가" has its subject.
사랑한다(Love) + 내가( I ).

Nan . Jhoyo => I don't know what they are. I think you wrote wrong words.
gue, 2017/02/27 11:40
Thank you,

Nan, nega = i think it means "I am" (i always heard in dramas)
openslang, 2017/02/27 15:13
yeah , you are right. nan(난) and nega(내가) are variations of basic form - naneun(나는 : "I am").
오웬, 2017/03/01 14:52
'난' is 'I' not 'I am'
'나는' is 'I' not 'am'

Depending on the particle '나' can become, 'I', 'me', 'my'.

'는' marks the subject in the sentence; '는' Makes '나' become 'I'.

'am' does not mark the subject in a sentence; English uses the word order to mark the sentences subject.

I think that this confusion arises because every English sentence requires a verb while Korean sentences might have an adjective instead of a verb.

For example,
'나는 슬퍼요' is 'I am sad.'
This Korean sentence does not have a verb (동사), only an adjective (형용사). Every English sentence requires a verb, so we add a be-verb.

This misconception may lead to mistakes.

'나는 빵을 먹어요' = 'I eat bread'

But' I am eat bread' is a common mistake for my korean students. But 'eat' is a verb so this sentence does not need another verb.

Often 'am' should be translated as '이다' or '있다'

'I am a dragon' = '나는 용이에요'
'I am at home' = '나는 집에 있어요'

This is especially obvious if you use past tense by changing 'am' to 'was', '이에요' to '이었어요' and '있어요' to '있었어요'

'I was a dragon' = '나는 용이었어요'
'I was at home' = '나는 집에 있었어요'

However 'am' has many other functions (which '는' does not) such as writting a sentence in the passive voice.

Active: 'I chase a cat' = '나는 고양이를 쫓아요'
Passive: 'I am chased' = '나는 쫓겨요'

Here both Korean sentences use '는', but only 1 English sentence uses 'am'.

If you seen any mistakes, please tell me :)
openslang, 2017/03/01 15:40
Thanks 오웬. You are right. 나는, 난, 내가 all mean just 'I' , not 'I am'.

Usually, 'am' is considered as '~이다' in English class in Korea. However 'am' transforms to too many forms in Korean, so I think that it's better for Foreign learners who study Korean to ignore the exact match between 'am' and 'specific form such as 이다'.
오웬, 2017/03/01 16:42
I disagree, unless you are learning from young childhood.

There are 5 cases of be-verb that I think most students should study. (In order of important)

be-verb + adjective (only use the adjective)
Identity (use ~이다)
Locative (use 있다)
Continuous tense (use ~고 있다)
Passive voice (only use the passive verb from the past participle)

But don't only study grammar, you probably can't learn them all together. Take one form of grammar, then practise it using it in your target language. Don't worry about the other forms until you can use the current one, with only a fraction of a second to think about it. If you don't practise what you learn, you will forget it.

Grammar is complex and wrought with special cases, yet in our native tongue we can use it without understanding it. This makes it very difficult to understand a foreign language's grammar with first studying your native tongue's grammar.

Studying the grammar of both your native tongue and target language, will certainly help older students.
openslang, 2017/03/01 17:59
I meant it is needless to think like 'am=이다' as the exact 1 : 1 match system. Every language is actually different. For instance, apple and 사과 are different(technically, in cognitive view). Because American and Korean make different images in their brain when they hear each word, and two words have different meanings in their cultures.

Of course, grammar is very important in learning foreign languages. It makes language learning more systematic and efficient. However, I think it will be harmful to analyze sentences as too-much-mechanical way. I mean learning sentences in real world is better than falling into the mechanical grammar in books.
오웬, 2017/03/01 18:13
I did not suggest a 1 to 1 mapping.
openslang, 2017/03/01 18:21
No. I didn't mean you suggested the 1 : 1 mapping way. What I said is just another separate information for other visitors. I am an administrator of this site, so I am supposed to make information about Korean as much possible as I can on every comment that I write. : )
Sondos, 2017/01/12 15:52

I hope It will be usefull for me

openslang, 2017/01/12 17:12

Yeah, I am pretty sure it is useful for you. Anytime if you wanna know about Korean, feel free to ask this forum. And plus, try to make your own word page on this dictionary. It will help your language ability improved. Thanks.

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